top of page


Bridget Donnelly

Free Indirect Discourse in Jane Austen's Emma

Teaching Notes


"Free Indirect Discourse in Emma" was first presented at the Jane Austen Summer Program of 2015, entitled "Emma at 200." In this presentation, Bridget Donnelly explores Austen's signature narrative style. 

Discussion Question

  1. How does the use of free indirect discourse (FID) in Emma affect the characteristically ironic tone that we tend to associate with Austen’s narrators? Do you think that the use of FID makes the narrative voice easier to relate to than a more “objective” omniscient narrator?

"Free Indirect Discourse" handout 
View | Print PDF >
bottom of page